Humanism began and achieved fruition first in Italy. The fall of Constantinople in provided humanism with a major boost, for many eastern scholars fled to Italy, bringing with them important books and manuscripts and a tradition of Greek scholarship. Humanism had several significant features. First, it took human nature in all of its various manifestations and achievements as its subject.
Second, it stressed the unity and compatibility of the truth found in all philosophical and theological schools and systems, a doctrine known as syncretism. Third, it emphasized the dignity of man. In place of the medieval ideal of a life of penance as the highest and noblest form of human activity, the humanists looked to the struggle of creation and the attempt to exert mastery over nature. Finally, humanism looked forward to a rebirth of a lost human spirit and wisdom.
In the course of striving to recover it, however, the humanists assisted in the consolidation of a new spiritual and intellectual outlook and in the development of a new body of knowledge.
The effect of humanism was to help men break free from the mental strictures imposed by religious orthodoxy, to inspire free inquiry and criticism , and to inspire a new confidence in the possibilities of human thought and creations.
From Italy the new humanist spirit and the Renaissance it engendered spread north to all parts of Europe, aided by the invention of printing, which allowed literacy and the availability of Classical texts to grow explosively.
Foremost among northern humanists was Desiderius Erasmus , whose Praise of Folly epitomized the moral essence of humanism in its insistence on heartfelt goodness as opposed to formalistic piety. The intellectual stimulation provided by humanists helped spark the Reformation , from which, however, many humanists, including Erasmus, recoiled.
It was in art that the spirit of the Renaissance achieved its sharpest formulation. In the hands of men such as Leonardo da Vinci it was even a science , a means for exploring nature and a record of discoveries. Art was to be based on the observation of the visible world and practiced according to mathematical principles of balance, harmony, and perspective , which were developed at this time.
Francis of Assisi had rejected the formal Scholasticism of the prevailing Christian theology and gone out among the poor praising the beauties and spiritual value of nature. His example inspired Italian artists and poets to take pleasure in the world around them. The great poet Dante lived at about the same time as Giotto, and his poetry shows a similar concern with inward experience and the subtle shades and variations of human nature.
Although his Divine Comedy belongs to the Middle Ages in its plan and ideas, its subjective spirit and power of expression look forward to the Renaissance. Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio also belong to this proto-renaissance period, both through their extensive studies of Latin literature and through their writings in the vernacular. Unfortunately, the terrible plague of and subsequent civil wars submerged both the revival of humanistic studies and the growing interest in individualism and naturalism revealed in the works of Giotto and Dante.
The spirit of the Renaissance did not surface again until the 15th century. In a competition was held at Florence to award the commission for bronze doors to be placed on the baptistery of San Giovanni. Defeated by the goldsmith and painter Lorenzo Ghiberti, Filippo Brunelleschi and Donatello left for Rome, where they immersed themselves in the study of ancient architecture and sculpture. When they returned to Florence and began to put their knowledge into practice, the rationalized art of the ancient world was reborn.
The founder of Renaissance painting was Masaccio — The intellectuality of his conceptions , the monumentality of his compositions, and the high degree of naturalism in his works mark Masaccio as a pivotal figure in Renaissance painting.
The succeeding generation of artists—Piero della Francesca, the Pollaiuolo brothers , and Verrochio—pressed forward with researches into linear and aerial perspective and anatomy , developing a style of scientific naturalism. The situation in Florence was uniquely favourable to the arts. The civic pride of Florentines found expression in statues of the patron saints commissioned from Ghiberti and Donatello for niches in the grain-market guildhall known as Or San Michele, and in the largest dome built since antiquity, placed by Brunelleschi on the Florence cathedral.
The cost of construction and decoration of palaces, churches, and monasteries was underwritten by wealthy merchant families, chief among whom were the Medici family. The Medici traded in all of the major cities in Europe, and one of the most famous masterpieces of Northern Renaissance art , The Portinari Altarpiece , by Hugo van der Goes c.
Instead of being painted with the customary tempera of the period, the work is painted with translucent oil glazes that produce brilliant jewel-like colour and a glossy surface. Early Northern Renaissance painters were more concerned with the detailed reproduction of objects and their symbolic meaning than with the study of scientific perspective and anatomy even after these achievements became widely known. On the other hand, central Italian painters began to adopt the oil medium soon after The Portinari Altarpiece was brought to Florence in High Renaissance art, which flourished for about 35 years, from the early s to , when Rome was sacked by imperial troops, revolved around three towering figures: Leonardo da Vinci — , Michelangelo — , and Raphael — Each of the three embodied an important aspect of the period: Leonardo was the ultimate Renaissance man , a solitary genius to whom no branch of study was foreign; Michelangelo emanated creative power, conceiving vast projects that drew for inspiration on the human body as the ultimate vehicle for emotional expression; Raphael created works that perfectly expressed the Classical spirit—harmonious, beautiful, and serene.
Although Leonardo was recognized in his own time as a great artist, his restless researches into anatomy, the nature of flight, and the structure of plant and animal life left him little time to paint. Although Michelangelo thought of himself first as a sculptor, his best-known work is the giant ceiling fresco of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.
It was completed in four years, from to , and presents an incredibly complex but philosophically unified composition that fuses traditional Christian theology with Neoplatonic thought. In this large fresco Raphael brought together representatives of the Aristotelian and Platonic schools of thought. Raphael was initially influenced by Leonardo, and he incorporated the pyramidal composition and beautifully modelled faces of The Virgin of the Rocks into many of his own paintings of the Madonna.
He differed from Leonardo, however, in his prodigious output, his even temperament, and his preference for Classical harmony and clarity. The creator of High Renaissance architecture was Donato Bramante — , who came to Rome in , when he was His first Roman masterpiece, the Tempietto at San Pietro in Montorio, is a centralized dome structure that recalls Classical temple architecture.
Pope Julius II reigned —13 chose Bramante to be papal architect, and together they devised a plan to replace the 4th-century Old St.
Humanistic studies continued under the powerful popes of the High Renaissance, Julius II and Leo X , as did the development of polyphonic music.
The Sistine Choir, which performed at services when the pope officiated, drew musicians and singers from all of Italy and northern Europe.
Among the most famous composers who became members were Josquin des Prez — and Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina — The Renaissance as a unified historical period ended with the fall of Rome in The strains between Christian faith and Classical humanism led to Mannerism in the latter part of the 16th century.
Great works of art animated by the Renaissance spirit, however, continued to be made in northern Italy and in northern Europe. What did the Renaissance do? It changed the way we think about art, literature, architecture, music, science and god as people started to believe that not everything revolved around god and some things were due to us. What does the Harlem Renaissance mean to most people today?
They now took on jobs such as teachers, doctors, and social workers. What are the symbolic meanings of animals in Renaissance art? Answer Symbology and iconography two different flavors of the same idea were indeed present in renaissance art. Iconography usually refers to Christian symbols used to identify a character in a painting, while symbology is for more general and often secular purposes.
Icons such as a black robe and knotted rope belt are used identify St. Often these are combined with stigmata. When you see an angel with a sword in his hand, it is probably Michael.
Animal symbols that are not specifically Christian are also used. Off the top of my head, some common ones are: In a book was published which may shed more light on this. I have not read, nor am I affiliated with this book, but I have seen good reviews of it, and it seems to be the only one on this subject currently available. What are the Renaissance? It occured from Italy and then spread into Europe. What does Renaissance and Reformation mean? The Reformation is the movement to change Christianity which resulted in the formation of several Protestant churches..
What were the Renaissance? When and what was the renaissance? The Renaissance was in the 's century. The Renaissance was a time when the people started to break away from Catholicism, and when they started thinking outside the box especially in art. The breaking away from the catholic church was made by Martin Luther. It was known as the protestant reformation.. The period of time after the Middle Ages is known as "The European Renaissance" and is called a time of rebirth and action because new developments began to take place in most areas of culture and society..
Writers of this period spoke of a rebirth or renewal of culture, broadly that of classical antiquity, after what they saw as the barbarism of the intervening centuries.. The Renaissance was essentially a cultural movement which encompassed a revival of learning based on classical sources which were being "rediscovered".
Also, the development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual, widespread educational reform affected the manner in which people viewed and interacted in the world. This had an impact not only in art and architecture, but also in the fields of science, rhetoric, literature, and music.. As a time of rebirth and action, beginning in Italy with stirrings traceable to the thirteenth century of the late Middle Ages, the "movement proper" spanned the centuries from the 14th to the 17th, and later began spreading to the rest of western Europe.
While "renaissance" is a very general term to describe this era of history, there is no doubt that intellectual and secular developments took place, as did gradual progress in technology, along with improvements in husbandry and agriculture. This activated an increase in the number of people who left the land to live in cities.. What is the renaissance in Italy? The Italian Renaissance was a time when many changes were going onin Europe.
There was an abundance of art, music, and literatureintroduced at this time. What did the Harlem Renaissance mean for blacks? During the renaissance era what color mean rich and bold? During the renaissance, different colors had symbolic meanings. Dark red was the color that represented luxury and refinement andblack meant boldness and sophistication. What does the term Renaissance Man mean? A well-rounded, well educated man.
One who focuses on more than one field of study or hobby. The reanaissance period went from AD - AD. Europe had gone through the dark age from 4th century AD to 11 century AD. Ideas and thinkings were very limited until about middle of the 15th century AD. That was the actual time when Renaissance or rebirth of learning started the central place was Florence, one of the cities in Northern Italy.
A great change was brought to religion, science, art, buildings and Literature and the whole way of life. Was there a renaissance?
There have been several renaissances throughout history, including the 16th century renaissance of Europe and the Harlem renaissance. What is gothic renaissance mean? The Gothic Renaissance was a time period during the EuropeanRenaissance where gothic art started popping up every where.
Thereis gothic architecture all over Europe and it is defined usually bythe use of a pointed arch. Also rib vaults, buttresses and largewindows. How did the merchants of the renaissance dpread the renaissance? Merchants spread the renaissance by going to different countries in Europe selling art from the Renaissance. They also sold books that were made from the printing press and spread the Renaissance. What does Italian Renaissance mean? The Italian Renaissance was more directly linked to the Catholic Church due to the proximity to the Vatican, perhaps.
The Italian painters had different styles and mediums. Even the architecture from the area was different.. You can look up the specific differences since there are many. Wikipedia has fairly good descriptions and comparisons.
What do you mean by renaissance? To me the word "renaissance" means the rebirth or revival of former greatness. It can be applied to a country, a neighborhood or a person who is known as a renaissance man because he has mastered a wide variety of subjects or fields, or is well educated. Where was the Renaissance? England The Renaissance is a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.
Who were the renaissance? Renaissance means "Rebirth" or "Revival".. It was a rebirth or revival of classical thinking and of the concepts of "Humanism". It was a revival of scholars, free-thinking, and the arts. A historian has said that the Renaissance created something new from something old What does this statement mean? What does word renaissance mean literally?
RE means 'again', of course. What do the renaissance do? The renaissance did a lot. It helped a lot of people learn to read and write. So when the people began to discover the ancient texts they were very interested, they wanted to learn more. What are the similarities of Harlem Renaissance and Renaissance? The same the occurred with the Renaissance..
The same the occurred with the Renaissance. What did renaissance do? The European Renaissance was a time where the churhc split into two major religions, the Roman Catholics and the Protestants.
The Renaissance was a time where it made the people look at the Christian faith and notice its flaws. It made the people think about what the church was doing and it made them think about what powers the church was abusing. What is the meaning of the word Renaissance? The Renaissance is a period of time in Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries, which was marked by the rejection of ancient knowledge and the pursuit of educational reform.
It was also famous for its rapid advancement of art and culture.. The word renaissance can also mean any rapid improvement in culture. What is the renaissence? The renaissance is a period of time in which there was a significan progression in arts It happened in17 18 around Those times in Italy I think. Which Italian renaissance writer stressed that the end justifies the means in his writings?
Famous artist in the Renaissance era; painted the Sistine Chapel and created the Statue of David. Baldassare Castiglione Italian diplomat and writer; he wrote The Courtier, one of the most important .
Freebase ( / 6 votes) Rate this definition: Renaissance. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.
Renaissance definition, the activity, spirit, or time of the great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe beginning in the 14th century and extending to the 17th century, marking the transition from the medieval to the modern world. (c. –) Meaning “rebirth,” the term describes the revival of classical learning and art. Centered at first in Florence, it marked the end of the Middle Ages and .
Renaissance definition is - the transitional movement in Europe between medieval and modern times beginning in the 14th century in Italy, lasting into the 17th century, and marked by a humanistic revival of classical influence expressed in a flowering of the arts and literature and . The term 'renaissance' means re-birth or revival. The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries are known as period of Renaissance when many educated men turned from religious speculation to the study of ancient Greek and Roman writers and challenged the religious and philosophical teachings of the.